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  • Chad Lively

Common Types of Financial Accounts & Investments

There are many different types of accounts and investment when it comes to dealing with personal finances. Each with their own pros, cons, and use case. Below is a list of common Financial Accounts and investments I speak with clients about regularly, and I recommend everyone ask their Financial Planner about them.

  • 401 (k) Account- A retirement savings plan offered by employers to eligible employees. Contributions to a 401(k) account are made on a pre-tax basis, and earnings grow tax-deferred until withdrawal. Withdrawals are typically taxed as regular income in retirement.

  • 403 (b) Account- Similar to a 401(k), a 403(b) is a retirement savings plan offered to employees of certain non-profit organizations, such as schools and hospitals. Contributions are made on a pre-tax or after-tax basis, and earnings grow tax-deferred.

  • 529 Plan- A tax-advantaged education savings plan operated by a state or educational institution. 529 plans allow individuals to invest funds for future education expenses, and withdrawals for qualified educational expenses are generally tax-free.

  • Annuities- Financial products offered by insurance companies that provide regular income payments in exchange for a lump sum payment or periodic contributions. Annuities can be used for retirement income or long-term financial planning.

  • Brokerage Account- An account offered by a brokerage firm that allows investors to buy and sell a variety of financial instruments, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and ETFs.

  • Cash Management Account- An account that combines banking services, such as checking and savings accounts, along with investment options. Cash management accounts often provide features like check writing, debit cards, and access to money market funds or brokerage services.

  • Certificate of Deposit (CD)- A time deposit account with a fixed term and a fixed interest rate. CDs generally offer higher interest rates than regular savings accounts, but funds are locked in for a specific duration, typically ranging from a few months to several years.

  • Checking Account- A transactional account that allows frequent deposits and withdrawals, often used for daily expenses. Checking accounts typically provide check-writing privileges, debit cards, and online/mobile banking access.

  • Commodities- An account used for buying and selling commodities, such as agricultural products, precious metals, or energy resources. Trading Account Commodities trading accounts are typically opened with brokerage firms or commodity trading platforms.

  • Custodial Account- An account that an adult holds on behalf of a minor, often used to manage assets or investments for the minor's benefit until

  • Education Savings Account (ESA)- A tax-advantaged savings account designed to help individuals save for qualified education expenses. ESA funds can be used for elementary, secondary, or higher education costs.

  • Flexible Spending Account (FSA)- An employer-sponsored account that allows employees to set aside pre-tax money to pay for eligible out-of-pocket healthcare or dependent care expenses. FSAs are "use it or lose it" accounts with a limited rollover or grace period.

  • Forex Trading Account- An account used for trading foreign currencies in the global forex market. Forex trading accounts can be opened with forex brokers and allow individuals to speculate on currency exchange rate movements.

  • Health Reimbursement Arrangement (HRA)- An employer-funded account that reimburses employees for qualified medical expenses. HRAs are typically paired with high deductible health insurance plans and can offer tax advantages.

  • Health Savings Account (HSA)- A tax-advantaged account that individuals with high-deductible health insurance plans can use to save money for qualified medical expenses. Contributions are tax-deductible, earnings are tax-free, and withdrawals for eligible medical expenses are tax-free.

  • High-Yield Savings Account- A type of savings account that offers a higher interest rate compared to standard savings accounts. High-yield savings accounts are typically offered by online banks or financial institutions and may require higher minimum balances.

  • Individual Retirement Account- A tax-advantaged retirement account that allows individuals to save for retirement. IRAs come in different types, including Traditional IRAs (contributions may be tax-deductible), Roth IRAs (contributions are not tax-deductible but qualified withdrawals are tax-free), and SEP IRAs (for self-employed individuals).

  • Joint Account- An account owned by two or more individuals who have equal rights and access to the account. Joint accounts are commonly used for shared expenses or joint savings goals, and all account holders have equal authority over the funds.

  • Money Market Account- A type of savings account that generally offers higher interest rates compared to regular savings accounts. Money market accounts often require higher minimum balances, and they may have limited check￾writing and debit card access.

  • Prepaid Card Account- An account linked to a prepaid card that allows individuals to load funds onto the card for spending. Prepaid cards can be used for various purposes, such as budgeting, travel, or online purchases. A type of mutual fund that invests in short-term, high quality debt.

  • Prime Money Market Fund- instruments like Treasury bills and commercial paper. Prime money market funds aim to provide stability, liquidity, and modest returns.

  • Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)- A company or fund that owns, operates, or finances income generating real estate properties. REITs allow individuals to invest in real estate without directly owning and managing properties.

  • Savings Account- A basic deposit account offered by banks and credit unions, typically used for storing money, earning interest, and facilitating everyday transactions. They usually offer easy access to funds.

  • Social Security Account (for benefits)- An account associated with an individual's Social Security number that tracks their earnings history and contributions to the Social Security system. It is used to determine eligibility and calculate benefits during retirement, disability, or survivorship.

  • Traditional Pension Plan- An employer-sponsored retirement plan that guarantees a specific retirement benefit based on factors such as years of service and salary history. The employer typically bears the investment risk.

  • Treasury Securities Account (T-bills, Bond, Notes)- An account used for purchasing and holding U.S. Treasury securities, such as Treasury bills (T-bills), Treasury bonds, and Treasury notes. These accounts can be opened through a financial institution or directly with the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

  • Trust Account- A legal arrangement where a trustee holds and manages assets on behalf of beneficiaries according to the terms of the trust agreement. Trust accounts can be used for various purposes, such as estate planning or charitable giving.

These are just scratching the surface! Below is a PDF download if you'd like to save the list. I recommend everyone discuss these accounts and investments with their financial salutation to determine what will work best for them.

Common Types of Financial Accounts
.pdf
Download PDF • 614KB

Common types of Financial Accounts and Investments

FAQ:

What is a money market account, and how does it differ from a regular savings account?

A money market account is a higher-yield savings option that often requires a higher minimum balance and may offer check-writing privileges. A regular savings account is a more accessible option with lower minimum balance requirements and a simpler transaction structure. Both accounts provide a secure way to save money while earning interest, and the choice between them depends on your financial goals and preferences.


What is the difference between a Traditional IRA and a Roth IRA?

Traditional IRA contributions are made pre-tax and Roth IRA contributions are made after tax. Choosing between a Traditional IRA and a Roth IRA depends on your individual circumstances, including your current and future tax situations, financial goals, and retirement plans. If you expect your tax rate to be lower in retirement, a Traditional IRA's upfront tax deduction might be more beneficial. On the other hand, if you anticipate higher tax rates in the future, a Roth IRA's tax-free withdrawals could be advantageous. Consulting with a financial advisor can help you make an informed decision based on your specific situation.


What is diversification in investment portfolios?

Diversification is a fundamental investment strategy that involves spreading your investments across a variety of different assets and asset classes. The goal of diversification is to reduce risk and enhance the potential for consistent returns over time. It's about achieving a balance between risk and potential reward. By spreading your investments across different assets, you aim to create a portfolio that can weather market fluctuations and deliver more stable long-term performance.


What is the difference between stocks and bonds as investment options?

  • Stocks are more suitable for investors seeking higher growth potential and who can tolerate greater market volatility.

  • Bonds are appropriate for those seeking more stability, predictable income, and capital preservation.

  • Diversification across both asset classes can help manage risk by balancing potential returns with more stable income.

Ultimately, the choice between stocks and bonds depends on your investment goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon. Many investors choose a mix of both to create a balanced portfolio that aligns with their financial objectives.


How do index funds compare to actively managed funds in terms of investment strategy?

  • Index funds offer broad market exposure with lower costs, making them a simple and cost-effective way to achieve market returns.

  • Actively managed funds aim to outperform the market through skillful stock selection and timing, but their success is not guaranteed.

  • Over the long term, the majority of actively managed funds tend to underperform their benchmarks, partially due to higher costs.

Choosing between index funds and actively managed funds depends on factors like your investment goals, risk tolerance, and beliefs about market efficiency. Many investors opt for a combination of both approaches within their portfolios to balance cost-efficiency and the potential for outperformance.

What is the role of a financial advisor in helping individuals choose suitable investments?

The role of a financial advisor in helping individuals choose suitable investments involves providing personalized guidance, expertise, and recommendations to align investments with the client's financial goals, risk tolerance, and overall financial situation. By leveraging their expertise, advisors help individuals navigate the complex world of investments and make informed choices that support their financial well-being.


Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are those of certain Lively Financial personnel and are subject to change without notice. The opinions referenced are as of the date of publication and are subject to revision due to changes in the market or economic conditions and may not necessarily come to pass. Any opinions, projections, or forward-looking statements expressed herein are solely those of author, may differ from the views or opinions expressed by other areas of the firm, and are only for general informational purposes as of the date indicated. Lively Financial believes that the content provided by third parties and/or linked content is reasonably reliable and does not contain untrue statements of material fact or materially misleading information. This third-party content may be dated.

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